1. How would you describe Wall-E’s life on earth?
1. How would you describe Wall-E’s life on earth?
“We believe that all students have the power to become “smart learners” if they use self-regulatory processes to study more effectively.”
Academic self-regulation refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions intended to attain specific educational goals, such as analyzing a reading assignment, preparing to take a test, or writing a paper.
Compared with low-achieving students, high achievers report setting more specific learning goals for themselves, using more strategies to learn, self monitoring learning progress more frequently, and more systematically adapting their efforts on the basis of learning outcomes.
Self-monitoring is the deliberate observation of covert and overt aspects of one’s performance outcome on a given task, such as comprehending while reading.
High achievers feel self-efficacious and personally responsible for their control of the academic learning process.
Self-efficacy refers to self-perceptions or beliefs of capability to learn or perform tasks at designated levels.
“metacognitive benefits of comprehensive self-regulatory training will become especially evident during the middle-school years and thereafter (Zimmerman – Martinez-Pons, 1990)
A self-regulatory cycle is designed to enhance not only student’s learning but also their perception of self-efficacy or control over the learning process. The self-regulatory cycle gives students a sense of personal control that has been shown to be a major source of intrinsic motivation to continue learning on one’s own (Zimmerman 1985, 1995).
“such classrooms are designed to draw on peer modeling and feedback as well as teacher resources in the process of becoming self-regulatory”.
Research suggests that most teachers are aware of their students who have self-regulatory problems (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1988)
Self-regulatory models of instruction focus on students’ use of specific processes to motivate and guide their learning.
The capability to self-regulate emerges naturally in a social climate of dedication and common purpose, such as in a family or an effective school (Schunk & Zimmmerman, 1996).
We suggest that an instructional model involving explicit training in goal setting, strategy use, self-monitoring, and systematic practice can be used in classroom situations.
This behavioral focus of academies influences the form of learning, with greater emphasis placed on expert and peer modeling, direct social feedback for performance efforts, and practice routines involving specific goals and methods of self-monitoring.
We have evidence that academic self-motivating grows initially from parental goal expectations but ultimately from acquired academic standards, perceived self-efficacy and personal goal setting (Zimmerman, Bandura, Martinez-Pons 1992)
Smart learners ultimately learn more with less effort once they discover the processes that work best for them, and this is where self-monitoring and other self-regulatory processes come into play.
The ultimate psychological advantages of this shift in academic focus to learning methods are profound because one’s progress in mastering methods of learning precedes improved learning outcomes (Bandura, 1986; Schunk & Swartz, 1993; Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994)
When student’s perceive a teacher’s primary goal as conveying how to learn, they will relax their self-defenses and will seek assistance more readily, often in the form of modelling and coaching from teachers and knowledgeable peers (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1996)
Learning strategies can be taught successfully from the elementary-school to the collegiate level as long as they are integrated within a larger framework of self-regulatory training. (Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995, Zimmerman, 1989)
Strategies are not a panacea for learning difficulties because their effectiveness depends on various personal and contextual factors.
To acquire mastery of optimal studying techniques students need to make multiple efforts to reveal the strategic components that are responsible for successes as well as those in need of further improvement.
Cycle : Self Evaluation—- Goal setting and strategic Planning— Strategy Implementation and monitoring—- strategic outcome/monitoring—-
Self-evaluation and monitoring occur when students judge their personal effectiveness often from observations and recordings of prior performances and outcomes.
Goal setting and strategic planning occur when students analyze the learning task, set specific learning goals, and plan or refine the strategy to attain the goal.
Strategy implementation monitoring: occurs when students try to execute a strategy in structured contexts and to monitor their accuracy in implementing it.
Strategic- Outcome Monitoring: Occurs when students focus their attention on links between learning outcomes and strategic processes to determine effectiveness.
By establishing this self-regulatory cycle, teachers help students learn to recognize and appreciate links between their study behaviors and learning outcomes.
The model is cyclic because self-monitoring on each learning trial provides information that can change subsequent goals, strategies, or performance efforts.Self-regulatory is not an isolated endeavor but involves the self-directed use of social assistance and the use of informational resources (Newman, 1994)
Asking students to rate their self-efficacy rather after studying increases self-monitoring during the study session and awareness of which goals were actually accomplished.
Teachers can shift responsibility for the learning process by helping their students develop self-regulatory skill.
The teacher’s primary role in promoting SRL is to help students assume responsibility for their own learning progress.
By promoting student’s awareness of their use of study time, a teacher sets the stage for them to assume a greater role in regulating other aspects of their learning.
“Peer evaluations can have an important advantage when teacher collect the homework or quiz results to grade a student, they will be able to gauge the peer’s understanding of the judgmental criteria as well as the student’s strategic skill.
Self-efficacy is an important variable for students to monitor because it focuses attention on their beliefs about the effectiveness of their learning methods.
Self-Efficacy perceptions: One of the greatest strengths of self-regulatory approaches to academic skill development is that they provide students with the opportunities to see how activities under their control can bring them rewarding feelings.
Practice Exercise Number 1.
Get a New Mental Picture of Yourself
You cannot merely imagine a new self-image; unless you feel that it is a based upon truth. Experience has shown that when a person does change his self-image, he has the feeling that for one reason or another, he “sees”, or realizes the truth about himself.
1. Your built-in success mechanism must have a goal or “target”. This goal, or target, must be conceived of as ‘already in existence-now’ either in actual or potential form. It operates by either 1) steering you to a goal already in existence or by 2) ‘discovering’ something already in existence.
2. The automatic mechanism is teleological, that is, operates, or must be oriented to “end results” goals.
3. Do not be afraid of making mistakes, or of temporary failures.
4. Skill learning of any kind is accomplished by trial and error.
5. You must learn to trust your creative mechanism to do its work and not “jam it” by becoming too concerned or too anxious is to whether it will work or not, or by attempting to force it by too much conscious effort.
“No matter what the situation is, you can prepare for it beforehand by means of imagining yourself and your prospect face to face while he is raising objections and creating problems and you handling them properly.
Instead of trying hard by conscious effort to do the things by iron-jawed will power, and all the while worrying and picturing to yourself all the things that are likely to go wrong, you simply relax the strain, strop trying to “do it” by strain and effort, picture to yourself the target you really want to hit, and “let” your creative success mechanism take over. Thus, mental-picturing the desired end result, literally forces you to use “positive thinking”.
As Dr. Leslie D Weatherhead has said, “If we have in our minds a picture of ourselves as fear-haunted and defeated nobodies, we must get rid of that picture it and once and hold up our heads.
If you have been fearful and anxious in certain situations – see yourself acting calmly and deliberately, acting with confidence and courage – and feeling expensive and confident because you are.
He also said the self-realization is gained by ” a simple belief in one’s own uniqueness as a human being, a sense of deep and wide awareness of all people and all things and a feeling of constructive influencing of others through one’s own personality.
How to use relaxation to dehypnotize yourself
These memories of past failures do no harm as long our conscious thought and attention is focused upon the positive goal to be accomplished. Therefore, it is best to let these sleeping dogs lie.
Lecky found that there were two powerful “levels” for changing beliefs and concepts. There are “standard” convictions which are strongly held by nearly everyone. These are (1) the feeling or belief that one is capable of doing his share, holding up his end of the log, exerting a certain amount of independence and (2) the belief that there is “something” inside you which should not be allowed to suffer indignities.
Consciously practice the habit of “taking no anxious thought for tomorrow” by giving all your attention to the moment.
Another similar mental device which I have found very helpful to my patients is telling them: “Your success mechanism can help you do any job, perform any task, solve any problem. Think of yourself as ‘feeding’ jobs and problems to your success mechanism as a scientist ‘feeds’ a problem to an electronic brain”.
If you have been wrestling with a problem all day without making any apparent progress, try dismissing it from your mind, and put off making a decision until you’ve had a chance to “sleep on it”.
Habits on the other hand are merely reactions and responses which we have learned to perform automatically without having to think or decide. They are performed by our creative mechanism.
Fully as per cent of our behavior, feeling, and response is habitual.
Tomorrow morning determine which show you put on first and how you tie your shoes. Now, consciously decide that for the next 21 days you are going to form a new habit b putting on the other show first and trying your laces in a different way. Now, each morning as you decide to put on your shoes in a certain manner, let this simple act serve as a reminder to change other habitual ways of thinking, acting and feeling throughout that one day.
1. I will be as cheerful as possible.
2. I will try to feel and act a little more friendly toward people.
3. I am going to be a little less critical and a little more tolerant of other people, their faults, failings and mistakes. I will place the best possible interpretation upon their actions.
4. Insofar as possible, i am going to act as if success were inevitable, an I already am the sort of personality I want to be. I will practice ‘acting like’ and ‘feeling like’ this new personality.
5. I will not let my own opinion color facts in a pessimistic or a negative way.
6. I will practice smiling at least 3 times during the day.
7. Regardless of what happens, I will react as calmly and as intelligently as possible.
8. I will ignore completely and close my mind to all those pessimistic and negative “facts” which I can do nothing to change.
Develop a “nostalgia for the future” instead of for the past. The “forward look” and a “nostalgia for the future” can keep you youthful.
The success-type personality not only does not cheat and lie to other people, he learns to be honest with himself. What we call “sincerity” is itself based upon self-understanding and self-honesty. For no man can be sincere who lies to himself by “rationalizing” or telling himself “rational-lies”.
So must you admit your mistakes and errors but dont cry over them. Correct them and go forward. In dealing with other people try to see the situation from their point of view as well as your own.
You must daily have the courage to risk making mistakes, risk failure, risk being humiliated. A step in the wrong direction is better than staying “on the spot” all your life.
Successful personalities have some interest in and regard for other people. They have a respect for other’s problems and needs. They respect the dignity of human personality and deal with other people as if they were human beings, rather than pawns in their own game.
The person who feels that “people are not very important” cannot have very much deep-down self-respect and self-regard for he himself is “people” and with what judgement he considers others, he himself is unwittingly judged in his own mind.
It doesn’t matter who’s right, but what’s right.
(1) Try to develop a genuine appreciation for people by realizing the truth abut them; they are children of God, unique personalities, creative beings
(2) Take the trouble to stop and think of the other person’s feelings, his view points, his desires and needs. Think more of what the other fellow wants, and how he must feel. A friend of mine kids his wife by telling her, wherever she asks him, “Do you love me?” -Yes, whenever I stop and think about it”. There is a lot of truth in this. We cannot feel anything about other people unless we ” stop and think ” about them. Act as if other people are important and treat them accordingly. In your treatment of people have regard for their feelings. We tend to feel about objects in accordance with the way we treat them.
The person with adequate self-esteem doesn’t feel hostile toward others, he isn’t out to prove anything, he can see facts more clearly, isn’t as demanding in his claims on other people.
Stop carrying around a mental picture of yourself as a defeated, worthless person, stop dramatizing yourself as an object of pity and injustice. Use the practice exercises in this book to build up an adequate self-image.
The biggest secret of self-esteem is this: Begin to appreciate other people more; show respect for any human being merely because he is a child of God and “therefore” a ” a thing of value”.
Stop and think when you’re dealing with people. You’re dealing with a unique, individual creation of the creator of all. Practice treating other people as if they had some value- and surprisingly enough you own self-esteem will go up.
It doesn’t matter how many times you have failed in the past. What matters is the successful attempt, which should be remembered, reinforced and dwelt upon.
You may have made a mistake, but this does not mean that you are a mistake.
Accepts yourself as you are and start from there. Learn to emotionally tolerate imperfection in yourself.
I may not be perfect, I may have faults and weaknesses, I might have gotten off the track, I may have a long way to go- but I am something and I will make the most of that something.”
The failure-type personality does not direct his aggressiveness toward the accomplishment of a worthwhile goal. Instead t is used in such self-destructive channels as ulcers, high blood pressure, worry, excessive smoking, compulsive overwork, or it may be turned upon other persons in the form of irritability, rudeness, gossip, nagging, fault finding.
It doesn’t work. You don’t solve one problem by creating another. If you feel like snapping at someone; stop and ask yourself- ” Is this merely my own frustration at work? what has frustrated me?”
The insecure person feels that he should be “good” -period. He should be “successful” period. He should be “happy”, competent, poised-period. These are all worthy goals. But they should be thought of, at least in their absolute sense, as goals to be achieved, as something to reach for, rather than as ” shoulds”.
It is insecure trying to stand on the top as a pinacle, “mentally get down off your high-horse and you will feel more secure”.
Loneliness is a way of self-protection. Lines of communication with other people -and especially any emotional ties – are cut down. it is a way to protect our idealized self against exposure, hurt, humiliation. The lonely personality is afraid of other people.
Develop some social skill that will add to the happiness of people: dancing, bridge, playing the piano, tennis, conversation. It is an old psychological axiom that constant exposure to the object of fear immunizes against the fear.
“The greatest mistake a man can make is to be afraid of making one”.
many people are indecisive because they fear loss of self-esteem if they are proved wrong. Use self-esteem for yourself, instead of against yourself, by convincing yourself of this truth. Big men and big personalities make mistakes and admit them. it is the little man who is afraid to admit he has been wrong.
Resentment is an attempt to make our own failure palatable, by explaining i in terms of unfair treatment, injustice.
Resentment is also a “way” of making us feel important. Many people get a perverse satisfaction from feeling “wronged”. The victim o injustice, the one who has been unfairly treated, is morally superior to those who causes the injustice.
Resentment is an emotional rehashing, or re-fighting of some event past. You cannot win, because you are attempting to do the impossible – change the past.
Resentment, even when based upon real injustices and wrongs is not the way to win. It soon becomes an emotional habit.
Remember that your resentment is not caused by other persons, events or circumstances. It is caused by your own emotional response-your own reaction.
If everyone else should be dedicated to making you happy, you will be resentful when it doesn’t work out that way. If you feel that other people “owe” you eternal gratitude, undying appreciation, or continual recognition of your superlative worth, you will feel resentment when these “debts” are not paid. If life owes you a living, you become resentful when it isn’t forthcoming.
Resentment is therefore inconsistent with creative goalstriving. In creative goal-striving you are the actor, not the passive recipient. You set your goals. No one owes you anything you go out after your own goals. You become responsible for your own success, and happiness. Resentment doesn’t fit into this picture, and because it doesn’t it is a “failure mechanism”.
A person who has the capacity to enjoy still alive within him finds enjoyment in many ordinary and simple things in life. He also enjoys whatever success in a material way why he has achieved.
Emptiness is a symptom that you are not living creatively. You either have no goal that is important enough to you, or you are not using your talents and efforts in striving toward an important goal.
Real success never hurt anyone, Striving for goals which are important to you, not as status symbols, but because they are consistent with your own deep inner wants, is healthful.
Self Fulfilled persons have the following characteristics:
1. They see themselves as liked, wanted, acceptable and able individuals.
2. They have a high degree of acceptance of themselves as they are.
3. They have a feeling of oneness with others.
4. They have a rich store of information and knowledge.
There Rules for Imunizing yourself Against Emotional Hurts
(1) Be too big too feel threatened: When a person has adequate self-esteem little slights offer no threat at all- they are simply “passed over” and ignored.
(2) A self-reliant, responsible attitude makes you less vulnerable: But the creative, self-reliant person also feels a need to give love. His emphasis is a much or more on the giving as on the getting. He doesn’t expect love to be handed to him on a silver platter. Nor does he have a compulsive need that “everybody” must love him and approve of him. He has sufficient ego-security to tolerate the fact that a certain number of people will dislike him and disapprove.
Develop a more self-reliant attitude. Assume responsibility for your own life and emotional needs. Try giving affection, love, approval, acceptance, understanding, to other people, and you will find them coming back to you as a sort of reflex action.
(3) Relax away emotional Hurts
When we “feel hurt” or “feel offended”, the feeling is entirely a matter of our own response. In fact the feeling is our response.
It is our own responses that we have to be concerned about not other people’s we cam tighten up, become angry, anxious, or resentful and “feel hurt”. Or, we can make no response, remain relaxed and feel no hurt. Scientific experiments have shown that it is absolutely impossible of any kin while the muscles of the body are kept perfectly relaxed.
You alone are responsible for your responses and reactions. You do not have to respond at all. You can remain relaxed and free from injury.
True forgiveness comes only when we are able to see, and emotionally accept, that there is and was nothing for us to forgive. We should not have condemned or hated the other person in the first place.
To live creatively, we must be willing to be a little vulnerable. We must be willing to be hurt a little- if necessary, in creative living. A lot of people need a thicker and tougher emotional skin that they have. But they need only a though emotional hide or epidermis-nor a shell.
“Poor personality” and “inhibited personality” are one and the same. The person with a “poor personality” does not express the creative self within. He has restrained it, handcuffed it, locked it up ad thrown away the key. They word “inhibit” literally means to stop, prevent, prohibit, restrain.
The symptoms of inhibition are many and varied: shyness, timidity, self-consciousness, hostility, feelings of excessive guilt, insomnia, nervousness, irritability, inability to get along with others.
Inhibition and excessive negative feedback are one and the same. When we over-react to negative feedback of criticism, we are likely to conclude that not only is our present course slightly off-beam, or wrong, but that is wrong for us even to want to go forward.
If we are consciously overcritical of our speech, or if we are too careful in trying to avoid errors in advance, rather than reacting spontaneously, stuttering is likely to result.
Conscious Self-criticism makes you Do worse
When excessive negative feedback, or self-criticism was eliminated, inhibition disappeared and performance improved. When there was no time for worry, or too much carefulness in advance, expression immediately improved.
One ounce of good nervous tone in an examination, fling the book the day before, say to yourself, ‘I won´t waste another minute on this miserable thing, and I dont care an iota whether I succeed or not. Say this sincerely and feel it, and go out and play, or go to bed and sleep, and I am sure the results next day will encourage you to use the method permanently.
When you become too consciously concerned about “what others think”, when you become too careful to consciously try to please orther people; when you become too sensitive to the real or fancied disapproval of other people – then you have excessive negative feedback, inhibition and poor performance.
You become too careful to make a good impression, and in so doing choke off, restrain, inhibit your creative self and end up making a rather poor impression.
The way to make a good impression on other people is: Never consciously “try” to make a good impression on them. Never act, or fail to act purely for consciously contrived effect. Never “wonder” consciously what the other person is thinking of you, how he is judging you.
In this book, the knack of selling yourself, Mangan advises salesmen to use the “I’m going home to eat supper with my Ma and Pa! I’ve been through this a thousand times – nothing new can happen here, “attitude in all sorts of new and strange situations.
“This attitude of being immune to strangers or strange situations, this total disregard for all the unknown or unexpected has a name. It is called Poise, Poise is the deliberate shunting aside of all fears arising from new and uncontrollable circumstances.
You need to be more self-conscious
Then he stopped fighting and trying to conquer his “self-consciousness”, and instead concentrated or developing more self-consciousness feeling, acting, behaving, thinking as he did when he was alone, without any regard to how some other person might feel about of judge him. This total disregard for the opinion and judgement of other people did not result in his becoming callous, arrogant, or entirely insensitive to others. There is no danger of entirely insensitive to others. There is no danger of entirely eradicating negative feedback, no matter how hard you may try. But this effort in the opposite direction did tone down his overly sensitive feedback mechanism. He got along better with other people, and went on to make his living counseling people and making public speeches to large groups, ” without the slightest degree of self-consciousness”.
Many people, inhibited by the wrong kind of conscience, “hold back “, or ” take a back seat” in any kind of endeavor, even in church activities. They secretly feel it would not be “right” for them to “hold themselves out” as a leader, or “presume to be somebody”, or they are overly concerned with whether other people might think they were “showing off”.
We can become overly sensitive, and become too carefully concerned with whether we “have a right” to succeed in even a worthwhile endeavor.
Stage fright illustrates how universal is the suppression and inhibition of self-expression.
If you are among the millions who suffer unhappiness and failure because of inhibition- you need to deliberately practice dis-inhibition. You need to practice being less careful, less concerned, less conscientious. You need to practice speaking before you think instead of thinking before you speak. acting without thinking, instead of thinking or “considering carefully”before you act.
1. Don’t wonder in advance what you “going to say”. Just open your mouth and say it. Improvise as you go along.
2. Don’t plan (take no thought for tomorrow) Don’t think before you act. Act- and correct your actions as you go along.
3. Stop criticizing yourself. The inhibited person indulges in self-critical analysis continually.
4, Make a habit of speaking louder than usual. Inhibited people are notoriously soft spoken. Raise the volume of your voice. You don’t have to shout at people and use an angry tone-just consciously practice speaking louder than usual loud talk in itself is a powerful dis inhibitor.
5. Let people know when you like them. The inhibited personality is as afraid of expressing “good” feelings as bad ones.
“counting to ten” when you are tempted to become angry is based upon the same principle, and is very good advice- if you count slowly, and in fact actually delay the response, rather than merely holding in your angry shouting or desk pounding.
We must be sensitive to negative feedback data which advises us when we are off course, so that we can change direction and go forward. But at the same time, we must keep our own ship afloat and stable. Our ship must not be tossed and rocked and perhaps sunk by every passing wave, or even a serious storm.
Stop scaring yourself to death with your own mental pictures. Stop fighting straw men emotionally, respond only to what actually is, here and now and ignore the rest.
In order to perform well in a crisis we need to (i) learn certain skills under conditions where we will not be demotivated, we need to practice without pressure (2) we need to learn to react to crisis with an aggressive rather than a defensive attitude; to respond to the challenge in the situation, rather than to the menace; to keep put positive goal in mind. (3) we need to learn to evaluate so-called “crisis” situations in their true perspective; to not make mountains out of molehills, or react as if every small challenge were a matter of life or death.
The more intense the crisis situation under which you learn, the less you learn.
The most common form of shadow-boxing for public speakers is to deliver their speech to their own image on the mirror.
If we dwell upon failure, and continually picture failure to ourselves in such vivid detail that it becomes “real” to our nervous system, we will experience the feelings that go with failure.
On the other hand, if we keep our positive goal in mind, and picture it to ourselves so vividly as to make it “real”, and think of it in terms of an accomplished fact, we will also experience “whining feelings”. Self-confidence, courage, and faith that the outcome will be desirable.
And if there is one simple secret to the operation of your unconscious creative mechanism, it is this: call up, capture, evoke the feeling of success. When you feel successful and self-confident, you will act successfully when the feeling is strong, you can literally do no wrong.
Use gradualness. Begin to think about the desired end result as you do when you do worry about the future. When you worry you do not attempt to convince yourself that the outcome will be undesirable.
Faith and courage are developed in exactly the same way. Only your goals are different. If you are going to spend time in worry, why not worry constructively? Begin by outlining and defining to yourself the most desirable possible outcome.
Feelings cannot be directly controlled by will power. They cannot be voluntarily made to order, or tuned on and off like a faucet. If they cannot be commanded, however, they can be wooed. If they cannot be controlled by a direct act of will, they can be controlled indirectly.
A “bad” feeling is not dispelled by conscious effort or “will power”. It can be dispelled, however, by another feeling. If we cannot drive out a negative feeling by making a frontal assault upon it, we can accomplish the same result by substituting a positive feeling. Remember that feeling follows imagery. Feeling coincides with, and is appropriate to, what our nervous system accepts as “real” or the “truth about environment”.
Whenever we find ourselves experiences undesirable feeling-tones, we should not concentrate upon the undesirable feeling, even to the extent of driving it out. Instead, we should immediately concentrate upon positive imagery – upon filling the mind with wholesome, positive, desirable images, imagination and memories.
We habitually indulge in negative imagire out of the past, and in anticipating the future. This worry creates tension. The worries the makes an “effort” to stop worrying and is caught in a vicious cycle. Tension provides a “worrying atmosphere”. The only cure for worry, he says, is to make a habit out of immediately substituting pleasant, wholesome, mental images, for unpleasant “worry images”. Each time the subject finds himself worrying, he is to use this as a “signal” to immediately fill the mind with pleasant mental pictures out of the past or in anticipating pleasant future experiences. In time worry will defeat itself because it becomes a stimulus for practicing anti worrying.
“Experience has taught me to regard pessimism as major symptom of early fossilization. It usually arrives with the first minor symptom of physical decline”.
Six basic need that every human being has:
1, The need for love.
2. The need for security.
3. The need for creative expression.
4. The need for recognition.
5., The need for new experiences.
6. The need for self-esteem
The “mean” is the “average” you’re used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. The “median” is the “middle” value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order, so you may have to rewrite your list first. The “mode” is the value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.
” An affordance is a property of an object, or an environment, which allows an individual to perform an action. For example, a knob affords twisting, and perhaps pushing, while a cord affords pulling.
Different definitions of the term have developed, as explained in the following sections. The original definition described all actions that are physically possible. This was later adapted to describe action possibilities of which an actor is aware. The term has further evolved for use in the context of human–computer interaction (HCI) to indicate the easy discoverability of possible actions.
The word is used in a variety of fields: perceptual psychology, cognitive psychology, environmental psychology, industrial design, human–computer interaction, interaction design, instructional design, science, technology and society (STS), and artificial intelligence.”
Part 1. Homeostasis
What is Homeostasis?
– Usually it is defined as the state whereby an organism maintains balance in its internal system.
– You could say that homeostasis economizes energy expenditure and constantly works to keep us alive as long as possible.
Symptoms of Homeostasis.
Exert a minimal amount of energy—> Expending the least amount of energy needed unless you can conceive of a reason powerful enough not to.
Resist Change—> The longer you do something the harder it becomes to change that course of action.
Come up with an Infinitive number of Excuses not to exert Energy—> The body and brain will come up with any amount of excuses and rationalizations not to exert more energy about what is absolutely needed.
Live to procreate another day—> We must make up challenges and be inventive in findings ways of getting ourselves motivated and make life more exciting and intense.
Seek Instant Gratification, Avoid Pain. Human beings are wired to seek out whatever makes them feel good and keep reproducing that some stimulus over and over again, homeostasis wants to preserve that special chemical cocktail formed by the pleasure of your choice.
Entropy is the normal state of consciousness, a condition that is neither useful nor enjoyable.
Herd Mentality: Herd mentality and thinking for yourself. The first sustains homeostasis and saves us energy while the latter requires the expenditure of a lot of energy and may break us out of homeostasis.
The characteristics of Homeostasis.
In homeostasis there is often an unhealthy amount of dreaming and future planning going on, but never any real plans or actions taken to implement it. The act of starting is too frightening to the brain because then it has to work, so it is always postponed by the brain as part of the mental behavior of remaining homeostasis.
Pushing Through the Plateau
To get past the threshold will be called ‘Pushing Through the Plateau’, because that’s exactly what it feels like.
Various Factors Influencing the Difficulty of PTTP
– Physiology of your brain and body (neurotransmitters, hormones).
-Current skill level or ability in performing something.
– Your own belief, or perceived ability, of performing something.
MOMENTUM: After you manage to push through the plateau you gain intrinsic and self-sustaining motivation like force of momentum propelling you forward. Momentum makes through things way easier.
POOR FRAMES OF REFERENCE: The only thing it signifies is a failure to take personal responsibility. If the saying that “youare the average of the five people you spend time with”.
METACOGNITION: Metacognition is a fancy word for the self-reflection to think about what you think about and the nature of your thought process. The way that I use the word means to be aware of the thoughts you are having. Metacognition is the act of being aware of your current behavior, thought process, mental programming and habits.
You have thoughts and you are very much influenced by your thoughts, but ultimately you aren´t your thoughts. That´s the basis for practicing metacognition.
– Think deeply, write down how you feel or think, or film yourself.
– Keep a journal or commonplace, look it up.
– The point is to catch yourself in the act of wrongdoing and bring it up to the surface so that you become aware of your own unconscious behavior and immediately start to act in order to change it.
– Another helpful activity in order to develop metacognition is to go somewhere you can be by yourself, close your eyes, and start curiously asking questions to your mind.
Remember, homeostasis wants you to be comfortable and exert the least amount of energy possible.
PRINCIPAL AGENT THEORY.
Principal Agent Theory is an economic theory which says that E:F a manager (principal) get his employee (agent) to do a task for him. Principal Agent theory then goes into depth about how the principal cannot ensure that his agent will do the work for him the way it was planned unless the agent is monitored at all times; and that isn’t possible. A common assumption is that the agent wil shirk unless monitored or incentivized somehow.
The saying that “When the brain is stupid- the body suffers”. Holds somewhat true in this regard.
– Do my current actions as of right now in this moment stem from trying to preserve energy.
– Is this activity I´m about to undertake going to help my chances of breaking out of homeostasis or will it serve to push me further into the comfort of homeostasis.
– Be persistent in questioning. Find the root cause. Be patient; this is not a one day fix.
– Monitor your thought process throughout the day as you do things or as things happen to you. Observe your response. Try putting yourself in an objective position and see how it makes you feel.
– Why are you reacting the way you are?. If you were to guess, why would expect that you are having this certain sensation or urge right now?
How Homeostasis Sustain Itself
Homeostasis will sustain itself by default unless your metacognition is highly developed enough to catch it, and if your intent is sufficiently strong to allow you to persist or push through the plateau.
Excuses and Rationalizations
The better you become at quickly dropping and disallowing these false images and sensation from lingering in your mind and gather focus cumulatively, the easier it will be to break out the homeostasis.
There´s a ton of excuses that the brain comes up with to sustain itself in homeostasis in any given situation when it wants to trick you into doing something to fuel its addiction or keep you from exerting more than the minimal amount of energy. The brain is a lazy little bastard that tries to trick you.
One of the brain´s most powerful and devious ways of fooling us into saving energy is by procrastinating.
When we procrastinate it means we have bought into the brain´s rationalizations. We have been tricked usually without us being conscious of it.
If it happended unconsciously it means that there was no gap between the stimulus and the response. There was no process of metacognition going on at all, just a pre-programmed response.
As a rule of thumb it´s better to do things right away nine times out of ten- because that´s about how ofter your brain will try to trick you and give rise to thoughts or urges that stem from sustaining homeostasis.
Do you feel entitled to certain things?
Well, you aren´t. You aren´t entitled to anything but your thoughts and actions.
Self-pity is another deeply rooted and stealthy way that the brain keeps you from taking action. It also decreases the potency of your actions if you´re already doing something by taking up mental space, this diminishing your intent self-pity hinders you from dealing with the current situation.
The solution to self-pity can be summed up as to stop feeling sorry for yourself and do something about it instead.
Self-pity is a disgusting mental habit that needs to be worked or diligently in order to be removed.
Patience is a virtue when it comes to implementing positive habits or removing bad habits.
If you know you have a bad habit. Take care of it. Even if it´s a deeply rooted problem.It´s better to take care of it sooner rather than later.
Talk is shit and homeostasis is powerful.
HOMEOSTASIS AND FOOD
Gluttony is the cardinal sin.
Eating is directly linked to homeostasis as it puts you in a passive mode when you begin digesting the food and your oddy begins to store energy. This causes your parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) to do into a state of read-and-digest, which makes you sluggish.
If you seek to increase productivity and want to feel more clear-headed, then you should strive not to eat more than what you need to.
Eating more or Less and Paying the Price
eat in moderation- no sugar.
Insulin: If we refrain from eating for a few hours your insulin levels will revert to a baseline state and we will gradually start to break down some of the calories stored in the fat reserves.- this is called lypolisis. If we keep from eating a while longer, lipolysis soon turns into ketosis- which is when the body´s main energy source comes from ketones.
Leptin: The hormone leptin is one of the reasons why obese people become hungry mor e often than those who are not. Leptin plays a crucial part in providing you with the sensation of feeling full and satiated from eating.
Fasting; By fasting you gradually reduce as well as temporarily break free from these sensations of hormonal hunger and as a result you become a lot more clear-headed and focuses.
Eating for Performance: Most common ailments would be avoided if we ate well, exercised a few times a week, and activated our brains to reach a state of high focus daily.
PART TWO- BREAKING OUT OF HOMEOSTASIS
“An object at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by a force. An object in motion remains in motion, and at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force” Newton´s first law of motion.
Allostasis: Allostasis is that it is the process by which the body and the brain are able to stay in a working balance by adapting to the things that are currently happening- whether that be waking up in the morning, getting hit by a baseball bat, giving a speech, exercising, getting thirsty, etc.
Whenever you have emotions/thoughts that make you feel bad and include negative emotions:
1. Practice the skill of inducing a relaxation response in your body (calming down), 2. the other thing that you can do about it is to think less about negative things and stop projecting yourself into the future, worry less 3. Randomly stops every once in a while and stand completely still until I become relaxed.
AVOIDING ALLOSTATIC LOAD
The most important thing to understand about allostatic load is not very hard at all to grasp; your brain and body´s response to a stressor should not be
– Sluggish: you want to be able to relax as quickly as possible following a stressful event.
– Ineffective: An ineffective response to a stressor diminishes the brain and body´s capacity for adaptation.
– Prolonged: Don´t be in stressful situations for too long.
– Not terminated promptly.
Hormonal and Allostatic Changes
So, as long as you don´t induce an allostatic load by taking on more stress than your brain and body currently is capable of handling, you will be getting stronger and smarter. You will become hardened gradually.
Exerting more Energy
Lead Yourself: To break out of the homeostasis it is crucial that you lead yourself by acting incongruently with your emotional state when it is unproductive and negative.
Fording your physiology will work, If you feel like shit go for a run or work out and you will feel better.
The point is to activate the sympathetic nervous system and snap you out of your spell.
Never let the brain and homeostasis get the last word. Never let homeostasis get away with doing the minimal amount of work and this to be sustained- go beyond that!.
It does not necessarily have to be five minutes or a specific amount. The point is to really form the mental habit of not letting the brain dictate reality to you, especially in negative, uncomfortable, painful, or boring situations.
– If you tend to walk a certain way to school or work, change it dramatically and take massive detours.
– If you normally drive a car or ride a bus it´s time you force yourself to talk or go by bike.
– Start writing with your left hand if you are right handed.
– Eat your food with chopsticks.
– Turn off the automatic word composer.
– Take the stairs if you normally ride the elevator.
– Open door manually instead of by the press of a button.
The Reserve Tank: The habit of going for five more minutes is crucial in regards to unlocking the reserve tank. It all starts and ends with that. You focus on five more minutes and persisting just a little longer.
Don´t concern yourself with working too hard, but do concern yourself with mental anxiety and thinking too many destructive thoughts.
Activating the Brain:
Not a substitute for Genuine Interest: Activating the brain is not a substitute for being genuinely interested in something; it´s more like a really powerful way of cheating.
Importance of Preparation and Activating your Brain.
Preparation is important. If you go straight to work or class while being tired, you are not going to be at your best. On the other hand; if you can activate your brain beforehand you will not only effortlessly improve your capacity for learning, but you will also in all like-hood want to keep yourself in the state that you are currently in; resulting in your being much more engaged in the lesson or at work; asking questions and so on.
Information Society and the Internet
We must intelligently direct our information search; set deadlines and goals in order to use our time efficiently and get things done. If we don´t, we will be at the mercy of our brain and its incessant addiction to the stimulation of its choice. The brain doesn´t want to change, it wants to stay the same and continue doing whatever it´s doing. If it is watching Youtube videos or listening to music or reading on a forum it will want to keep doing that.
Intense Focus: ” My approach nowadays is a bit different. I try to be up several hours prior to class and warm up my focus so that from the moment I get there I´m already in a peak state of learning. This makes time in class much more satisfying and well-spent in terms of efficiency. Some of my favorite ways of reaching a state of intense focus include reading books. I find interesting writing and refining my thoughts, exercising and meditating.
All in all, reaching a state of intense focus has to be something you constantly do and live by. Reducing all unnecessary multitasking is a good start as it greatly diminishes your capacity to focus for longer periods of time.
Live simple and concern yourself with fewer things and your focus is likely to increase over time, trying to do ten different mid-size important tasks in one day is very inefficient; the brain doesn´t shift between carious activities without losing focus.
Lack Of Mastery
1. People accumulate bad habits and addictions such as multitasking, eating unhealthy, not working out, etc.
2. This gives raise to a lousy reward system, meaning that they associate pleasure with these unproductive activities and their brains are in a poor shape and will get duller with time.
3, This often leads to poor ability of concentration and remaining focusing on a train of thought, a question, or on a goal.
4, This inefficient and dissatisfying way of operating is held together by homeostasis which makes it hard to change.
5, There is no positive cumulative effect to speak of for most people.
Creative Vs Practical
“I just mentioned how people tend not to stick with an idea or a thought for any longer period of time, and thus they forgot the power of cumulative focus and inspiration in the short-term. In the long-term the result of this is that they don´t create new things (ideas in general, inventions, businesses, etc).
Leonard writes about how most people are dabblers, meaning that they try different things shallowly and will continue for as long as it goes well, but as soon as it gets difficult or uncomfortable they quit.
The main reason behind their decision to quit is because their egos are rather fragile and they can´t handle it when they don´t get the validation they feel they deserve. They might have a fixed picture of themselves as being to good to fail, and this when they get to the point where they can´t pull it off on the first attempt it goes against their self-image and they are forced to quit if that view of themselves is to keep on existing.
From the confines of this book we could also take it a step further by saying that dabblers are in unconscious reaction to homeostasis and instinctively don´t want to exert more energy than they minimally have to, they have little pain tolerance or self-discipline. Dabblers have very little reference points of breaking out of homeostasis.
Triggering Adrenaline: If I have an important event coming up i try to work my min into a peak state.
– Speak up ASAP in a meeting or large crowd of people so as to quickly engage the brain and trigger adrenaline. By doing this you get “buy-in” from yourself and you´ll want to keep yourself in this alert stage.
– By now you know how much homeostasis wants to keep you from changing this around; therefore, don´t think about it. Just do it ASAP without caring what you´re saying. Say anything just get that buy-in quickly. Most people aren´t paying attention anyway.
– If you hesitate it will only get worse. The longer you wait, the more doubt you experience, and the more power your brain will hold over you.
PART II THE BRAIN
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is situated in the front of the head and it is attributed with the abilities of making snap decisions in the present moment and redirecting the focus of your attention, holding your focus on long term goals and delaying gratification, exercising willpower, and the extent of your working memory.
Scientific studies involving measuring of brain activity and spiritual experiences have shown that skilled practitioners of mediation, such as tibetan monks have particularly active prefrontal cortices.
The more we use our PFC the stronger and more capable our PFC becomes through the process of Hebbian Learning, which states that neurons that fire together wire together. It then becomes easier for us to make snap decisions and act out of the present moment rather than resorting to autopilot behavior of making decisions based on past experiences or acting out routine behavior memorized as habit.
PFC AND RAS
The PFC has played a crucial part in the evolutionary process one has sped up our ability to learn from mistakes and correct errors. This usually happens from negative feedback in the form of pain and fear- so that the next time we encounter the same, or a similar situation, the PFC in combination with another part of the brain called the reticular activating system (RAS) will block out all other incoming stimuli causing us to fully focus on the situation at hand.
Repetition is the key; just reading something and logically grasping it isn´t enough. You must repeat the information many times until it sticks. It has to stick to the brain literally. You have to build a little space for it in your brain by letting neurons from connections to each other and machete out neural pathways.
You need to repeat whatever seems important many times in writing, by saying it, or by thinking it – preferably, all 3. Most importantly; you need to keep your focus (FPC) on the things that you want to learn (RAS).
Development of the PFC
The PFC is the part of the brain that takes the longest to mature and it is considered to be what really sets up apart from most other animals.
By te time we´ve become teens, the brain is nearly fully matured with the exception of the PFC. This fact is often use to explain why teenagers sometimes act impulsively without thinking ahead.
Positive Feedback Loop
Arnorld rewired his brain and this also his reward system from an early age to accept and to even cherish discomfort because he knew it server the purpose of his goals. He trained himself into seeking challenge novel experiences, to continue rather than to comfortably settle down at a level deemed to be acceptable by the status quo of society.
Freedom is turn is necessary to achieve self-esteem and happiness. Self-esteem is built slowly by acting on one´s desires and forming positive reference point. And happinnes is the byproduct of a positive self-esteem.
– A craving for safety, comfort, and a routine behavior.
– Often feeling uninspired, feeling lethargic.
– Reduced ability of perceiving subjective meaning and infusing intent into their lives (feeling cool).
– A lack of discipline and inability to follow through on goals.
– Inability of remaining focused for longer period of time.
– Failure to learn from post mistakes and quickly assimilate and apply new information gathered.
Good and Bad stuff for the PFC
– Learning new things continually is good for the PFC when we learn new things or are thrust into new situations the PFC is very active. Doing routine work that we already know doesn´t activate the PFC.
– Multitasking and/or swtching between many activities per day detract from focus and hinders you from using the PFC.
– Ask yourself- who is in control right now? make use of your PFC instead of living in reaction.
– Continually ask yourself “How does this relate to my goal?”
Lists of things that Improve or boost the function of the PFC
– Any activity that requires prolonged concentration
– Novelty of most sorts.
– Physical exercise and sports.
– Good sleep in a completely dark room
– Making a lot of decisions.
– Following through on decisions.
– Resisting instant gratification and temptations.
The amygdala is another interesting part of the brain. Some of its main functions are to form emotional connections to thoughts and memories, to give us empathy, and to keep us alive in dangerous situations. I,e the ‘ the fight or flight response’.
Your Brain’s Reward System
Reward System: neural pathways connecting the parts of your brain called the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the nucleus accumbens.
The reward system gives raise to most of our urges and determines what form of stimulation we chase.
Akrasia. It’s not uncommon to consistently act wrongly even though we’re highly conscious of it, this is called AKRASIA. Akrasia is greej for lacking command over oneself, to go against your better judgement, you logically believe that something is good for you believe but your brain’s reward system is wired inconsistently with that logic belief.
Acting acratic means that you lack practical reference points; that somewhere in your thought process there’s an assumption or opinion which you falsely and unconsciously regard as a fact when in reality this assumption is only backed up by theory and no proof or experience.
Waging War Against the Mind
The brain does not just give us complete access and allow us to BOOH in the 1st place. Nope, it forces us to go through a lot of pain and discomfort to reach this level of awesomeness instead of giving it to us in an easier and nicer way.
Good or Bad Reward System
This is where the PFC, willpower, discipline, intent, motivation, having a cause to fight for, and similar tools for harmonizing consciousness come in.
Unproductive and Inefficient Productive and Efficient
– Instant Gratification – Delayed Gratification.
– Rewards Used Excessively – Rewards use sparingly
– Unplanned use of stimuli and rewards. – Deliberate use of stimuli and rewards.
Great things require hard work, nothing happens by luck, Hand work is made a lot simpler by positive habits. If our reward system is crappy, we will have a very hard time achieving an impressive work ethic because we’ll associate pleasure with the wrong things.
A person with a crappy reward system is not likely to be very productive. Without a consciously chosen reward system we will find it difficult to work at anything of significance in the long-term, because that usually implies having to do at least some hard and boring job.
Practice – Repetion and Myelin
To consistently be doing your repetitions every day is of paramount importance; Hebbian learning, which says that the more we repeat something (fire the same neurons), the stronger the synaptic connecion gets; neurons that fire together wire together.
The reason why practice makes perfect is because it helps us grow myelin.
Helpful tips for Practicing
– Get the the big picture, then start small chunking it.
– Slowing Down– allows you to place more focus on the sticking points, it helps you attend to these errors more closely and perhaps resolve them before they happen.
– Distinguishing between flexible circuit skills are consistent circuit skills.
Journaling-—> Keeping a journal is one of the best habits to have no matter what you want to do in life.
Decide in Advance-–> Decide in advance that once you wake up in the morning you will meditate or read, then when you get to work or school you will speak up as quickly as possible.
Time to Walk and Follow Throught
Reading and understanding theory is at best a third of the learning process. The rest comes from the process of trial and error and practical experience.
“Newton’s laws of motion are three physical laws that together laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to said forces. They have been expressed in several different ways over nearly three centuries, and can be summarized as follows:
First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either is at rest or moves at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by an external force.
Second law: The vector sum of the forces on an object is equal to the total mass of that object multiplied by the acceleration of the object. In more technical terms, the acceleration of a body is directly proportional to, and in the same direction as, the net force acting on the body, and inversely proportional to its mass. Thus, F = ma, where F is the net force acting on the object, m is the mass of the object and a is the acceleration of the object. Force and acceleration are both vectors (as denoted by the bold type). This means that they have both a magnitude (size) and a direction relative to some reference frame.
Third law: When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to that of the first body.
The three laws of motion were first compiled by Isaac Newton in his Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), first published in 1687. Newton used them to explain and investigate the motion of many physical objects and systems. For example, in the third volume of the text, Newton showed that these laws of motion, combined with his law of universal gravitation, explained Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.”