Think again: How to reasong and argue. Week 1

Why arguments matter.
What is an argument?

Arguments are not fights.
You cannon win an argument by yelling. Abuse is not arguing.
A- An argument is a connected series of statements (intended) to establish a definite proposition.
B- Where some of them are premises.
C- And one is the conclusion.
D- Where the premises are intended to give a reason for the conclusion.

2. What are arguments used for?

Persuading is making people believe or do something that they would not otherwise that they would not otherwise believe or do.
Justifying is showing someone a reason to believe a conclusion. Justification tries to give good reasons.
Persuasion tries to change your belief or actions.

3. Strong arguments don´t always persuade everyone- Don´t try to persuade everyone.

4. What else are arguments used for? Explanation
Explaining is giving a reason why something happened.

KIND OF EXPLANATIONS From Aristotle in the Metaphysics

– Causal: Why did the bridge collapse?– The earthquake shook it.
– Teleological: Why did Joe go to the grocery store? To buy milk
– Formal: Why doesn´t this peg fit in that round hole? The peg is square.
– Material: Why is this golf club light? It is made of graphite.

An attempt to fit a particular phenomenon into a general pattern in order to increase understanding and remove bewilderment or surprise.

5. What are arguments made of? Language
i) Persuasion.
ii) Justification.
iii) Explanation
Language is Important, conventional, representational and social

Meaning: Linguistic meaning– Meaning is use (wittgestein)
Levels of Language: Linguistic-Speech-conversational.

6. Linguistic Acts


Question Answer
Apology Forgiveness

Conversational Act: Paul Grice: Quantity, Quality, relevance, manner.