Wall-e

1. How would you describe Wall-E’s life on earth?

 

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How Languages are Learned (LightBow & Spada) Unit 1 Language Learning in Early Childhood.

Language Learning in Early Childhood

– The First Three Years: Milestones and Developmental Sequences.

One remarkable thing about first language acquisition is the high degree similarity in the early language of children all over the world. Researchers have described developmental sequences for many aspects of first language acquisition.

Infants are able to hear subtle differences between the sounds of human languages. Not only do they distinguish the voice of their mothers from those of other speakers, they also seem to recognize the language that was spoken their mother before they were born.

One important finding is that it is not enough for babies to hear language sounds from electronic devices. In order to learn – or retain- the ability to distinguish between sounds, they need to interact with a human speaker.

However, by the end of their first year, most babies understand quite a few frequently repeated words in the language or languages spoken around them.

At 12 months, most babies will have begun to produce a word or two that everyone recognizes. By the age of two, most children reliably produce at least 50 different words and some produce many more.

As children progress through the discovery of language in their first three years, there are predictable patterns in the emergence and development of many features of the language they are learning. For some language features, these patterns have been described in terms of developmental sequences or ‘stages’. To some extent, these stages in language acquisition are related to children’s cognitive development. For example, children do not use temporal adverbs such as ‘tomorrow’ or ‘last week’ until they develop some understanding of time.

In the 1960s, several researchers focused on how children acquire grammatical morphemes in English. One of the best-known studies was carried out by Roger Brown and his colleagues and students. In a longitudinal study of the language development of three children, they found that 14 grammatical morphemes were acquired in a similar sequence.

Thus, there was evidence for a ‘developmental sequence’ or order of acquisition.

Many hypotheses have been advanced to explain why these grammatical morphemes are acquired in the observed order.

wug test—> By generalizing these patterns to words they have never heard before, they show that their language is more than just a list of memorized word pairs such as ‘book/books’ and ‘nod/nodded’.

The pre-school years

By the age of four, most children can ask questions, give commands, report real events, and create stories about imaginary ones, using correct word order and grammatical markers most of the time. In fact, it is generally accepted that by age four, children have acquired the basic structures of the language or languages spoken to them in these early years. Three-and four-years-olds continue to learn vocabulary at the rate of several words a day. They begin to acquire less frequent and more complex linguistic structures such as passives and relatives clauses.

In the pre-school years, children also begin to develo metalinguistic awareness, the ability to treat loanguage as an object separate from the meaning it conveys. Three-year-old children can tell you that it’s silly to say ‘drink the chair’, because it doesn’t make sense.

The school years

Learning to read gives a major boost to metalinguistic awareness. Seeing words represented by letters and other symbols on a page leads children to a new understanding that language has form as well as meaning.

Vocabulary grows at a rate of between several hundred and more than a thousand words a year, depending mainly on how much and how widely children read.

Another important development in the school years is the acquisition of different language registers. Children learn how written language differs from spoken language, how the language used to speak to the principal is different from the language of the playground, how the language of a science report is different from the language of a narrative.

Explaining first language acquisition.

Behaviourism is a theory of learning that was influential in the 1940s and 1950s, especially in the United States. With regard to language learning, the best-known proponent of this psychological theory was B.F Skinner (1957). Traditional behaviorists hypothesized that when children imitated the language produced by those around them, their attempts to reproduce what they heard received ‘positive reinforcement’.

Imitation and practice alone cannot explain some of the forms created by children. They are not merely repetitions of sentences that they have heard from adults. Rather, children appear to pick out patterns and generalize them to new contexts. They create new forms or new uses of words. Their new sentences are usually comprehensible and often correct.

Although behaviourism goes some way to explaining the sorts of overgeneralization that children make, classical behaviourism is not a satisfactory explanation for the acquisition of the more complex grammar that children acquire.

The Innatist Perspective

Noam Chomsky is one of the most influential figures in linguistics, and his ideas about how language is acquired and how it is stored in the mind sparked a revolution in many aspects of linguistics and psychology, including the study of language acquisition. The innatist perspective is related to Chomsky’s hypothesis that all human languages are based on some innate universal principles.

Researchers who study language acquisition from the innatist perspective argue that such complex grammar could never be learned purely on the basis of imitating and practising sentences available in the input. They hypothesize that since all children acquire the language of their environment, they must have some innate mechanism or knowledge that allows them to discover such complex syntax in spite of limitations in the input.

The Critical Period Hypothesis

The innatist perspective is often linked to the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH) – the hypothesis that animals, including humans, are genetically programmed to acquire certain kinds of knowledge and skill at specific times in life. Beyond those ‘critical periods’, it is either difficult or impossible to acquire those abilities.

Interactionist / developmental perspectives

Developmental and cognitive psychologists have focused on the interplay between the innate learning ability of children and the environment in which they develop. They argue that the innatists plave too much emphasis on the ‘final state’ (the competence of adult native speakers) and not enough on the developmental aspects of language acquisition.

They hypothesize that what children need to know is essentially available in the language they are exposed to as they hear it used in thousands of hours of interactions with the people and objects around them.

Piaget and Vygotsky

Vygotsky observed the importance of conversations that children have with adults and with other children saw in these conversations the origins of both language and thought. The conversations provide the child with scaffolding, that is, a kind of supportive structure that helps them make the most of the knowledge they have and also to acquire new knowledge.

Vygotsky’s view differs from Piaget’s. Piaget saw language as a symbol system that could be used to express knowledge acquired through interaction with the physical world. For Vygotsky, thought was essentially internalized speech, and speech emerged in social interaction. Vygotsky’s views have become increasingly central in research on second language development.

Cross-cultural research

Since the 1970s, researchers have studied children’s language learning environments in a great many different cultural communities. The research has focused not only on the development of language itself, but also on the ways in which the environment provides what children need for language acquisition.

The importance of interaction.

The role of interaction between a language-learning child and an interlocutor who responds to the child is illuminated by cases where such interaction is missing.

 

Usage-based learning

As more and more research has documented the ways in which children interact with the environment, developmental and cognitive psychologists find further evidence that language acquisition is ‘usage based’.

The usage-based perspective on language acquisition differs from the behaviourist view in that the emphasis is more on the child’s ability to create networks of associations rather than on processes of imitation and habit formation.

Language disorders and delays

While most children produce recognizable first words by 12 months, some may not speak before the age of three years. In very young children, one way to determine whether delayed language reflects language reflects a problem or simply an individual difference within the normal range is to determine whether the child responds to language and appears to understand even if he or she is not speaking.

Childhood bilingualism

The acquisition and maintenance of more than one language can open doors to many personal, social, and economic opportunities.

Unfortunately, as Jim Cummins (2000) and others have pointed out, children who already know one or more languages and who arrive at their first day of school without an age-appropriate knowledge of the language of the school have often been misdiagnosed as having language delays or disorders.

Children who learn more than one language from earliest childhood are referred to as ‘simultaneous bilinguals’, whereas those who learn another language later may be called ‘sequential bilinguals’.

However, there is little support for the myth that learning more than one language in early childhood is a problem for children who have adequate opportunities to use each one. There is a considerable body of research on children’s ability to learn more than one language in their earliest years.

As children learn a second language at school, they need to learn both the variety of language that children use among themselves (and in informal setting with familiar adults) and the variety that is used in academic settings. In his early research on childhood bilingualism, Jim Cummins called these two varieties BICS (basic interpersonal communication skills) and CALP (cognitice academic language proficiency).

Lily Wong Fillmore (2000) observed that when children are ‘submerged’ in a different language for long periods in pre-school or day care, their development of the family language may be slowed down or stalled before they have developed an age-appropriate proficiency in the new language. Eventually they may stop speaking the family language altogether, and this loss of a common language can lead to significant social and psychological problems.

Wallace Lambert (1987) called the loss of one language on the way to learning another subtractive bilingualism. It can have negative consequences for children’s self-esteem, and their relationships with family members are also likely to be affected by such early loss of the family language.

The research evidence suggests that a better approach is to strive for additive bilingualism – the maintenance of the home language while the second language is being learned. This is especially true if the parents are also learners of the second language. If parents continue to use the language that they know best with their children, they are able to express their knowledge and ideas in ways that are richer and more elaborate than they can manage in a language they do now know as well.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inquiry-based learning

From Wikipedia

Inquiry-based learning (also enquiry-based learning in British English)[1] starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios — rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge. The process is often assisted by a facilitator. Inquirers will identify and research issues and questions to develop their knowledge or solutions. Inquiry-based learning includes problem-based learning, and is generally used in small scale investigations and projects, as well as research.[2]

http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry/

 

Developing Self-Regulated Learners (Zimmerman, Bonner, Kovach)

“We believe that all students have the power to become “smart learners” if they use self-regulatory processes to study more effectively.”

Academic self-regulation refers to self-generated thoughts, feelings, and actions intended to attain specific educational goals, such as analyzing a reading assignment, preparing to take a test, or writing a paper.

Compared with low-achieving students, high achievers report setting more specific learning goals for themselves, using more strategies to learn, self monitoring learning progress more frequently, and more systematically adapting their efforts on the basis of learning outcomes.

Self-monitoring is the deliberate observation of covert and overt aspects of one’s performance outcome on a given task, such as comprehending while reading.

High achievers feel self-efficacious and personally responsible for their control of the academic learning process.

Self-efficacy refers to self-perceptions or beliefs of capability to learn or perform tasks at designated levels.

“metacognitive benefits of comprehensive self-regulatory training will become especially evident during the middle-school years and thereafter (Zimmerman – Martinez-Pons, 1990)

A self-regulatory cycle is designed to enhance not only student’s learning but also their perception of self-efficacy or control over the learning process. The self-regulatory cycle gives students a sense of personal control that has been shown to be a major source of intrinsic motivation to continue learning on one’s own (Zimmerman 1985, 1995).

“such classrooms are designed to draw on peer modeling and feedback as well as teacher resources in the process of becoming self-regulatory”.

 

Goal 1

Research suggests that most teachers are aware of their students who have self-regulatory problems (Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1988)

Self-regulatory models of instruction focus on students’ use of specific processes to motivate and guide their learning.

The capability to self-regulate emerges naturally in a social climate of dedication and common purpose, such as in a family or an effective school (Schunk & Zimmmerman, 1996).

We suggest that an instructional model involving explicit training in goal setting, strategy use, self-monitoring, and systematic practice can be used in classroom situations.

This behavioral focus of academies influences the form of learning, with greater emphasis placed on expert and peer modeling, direct social feedback for performance efforts, and practice routines involving specific goals and methods of self-monitoring.

We have evidence that academic self-motivating grows initially from parental goal expectations but ultimately from acquired academic standards, perceived self-efficacy and personal goal setting (Zimmerman, Bandura, Martinez-Pons 1992)

Smart learners ultimately learn more with less effort once they discover the processes that work best for them, and this is where self-monitoring and other self-regulatory processes come into play.

The ultimate psychological advantages of this shift in academic focus to learning methods are profound because one’s progress in mastering methods of learning precedes improved learning outcomes (Bandura,  1986; Schunk & Swartz, 1993; Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994)

When student’s perceive a teacher’s primary goal as conveying how to learn, they will relax their self-defenses and will seek assistance more readily, often in the form of modelling and coaching from teachers and knowledgeable peers (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1996)

Learning strategies can be taught successfully from the elementary-school to the collegiate level as long as they are integrated within a larger framework of self-regulatory training. (Pressley & Woloshyn, 1995, Zimmerman, 1989)

Strategies are not a panacea for learning difficulties because their effectiveness depends on various personal and contextual factors.

To acquire mastery of optimal studying techniques students need to make multiple efforts to reveal the strategic components that are responsible for successes as well as those in need of further improvement.

Cycle : Self Evaluation—- Goal setting and strategic Planning— Strategy Implementation and monitoring—- strategic outcome/monitoring—-

Self-evaluation and monitoring occur when students judge their personal effectiveness often from observations and recordings of prior performances and outcomes.

Goal setting and strategic planning occur when students analyze the learning task, set specific learning goals, and plan or refine the strategy to attain the goal.

Strategy implementation monitoring: occurs when students try to execute a strategy in structured contexts and to monitor their accuracy in implementing it.

Strategic- Outcome Monitoring: Occurs when students focus their attention on links between learning outcomes and strategic processes to determine effectiveness.

By establishing this self-regulatory cycle, teachers help students learn to recognize and appreciate links between their study behaviors and learning outcomes.

The model is cyclic because self-monitoring on each learning trial provides information that can change subsequent goals, strategies, or performance efforts.

Self-regulatory is not an isolated endeavor but involves the self-directed use of social assistance and the use of informational resources (Newman, 1994)

Asking students to rate their self-efficacy rather after studying increases self-monitoring during the study session and awareness of which goals were actually accomplished.

Teachers can shift responsibility for the learning process by helping their students develop self-regulatory skill.

The teacher’s primary role in promoting SRL is to help students assume responsibility for their own learning progress.

By promoting student’s awareness of their use of study time, a teacher sets the stage for them to assume a greater role in regulating other aspects of their learning.

“Peer evaluations can have an important advantage when teacher collect the homework or quiz results to grade a student, they will be able to gauge the peer’s understanding of the judgmental criteria as well as the student’s strategic skill.

Self-efficacy is an important variable for students to monitor because it focuses attention on their beliefs about the effectiveness of their learning methods.

Self-Efficacy perceptions: One of the greatest strengths of self-regulatory approaches to academic skill development is that they provide students with the opportunities to see how activities under their control can bring them rewarding feelings.

 

Psycho-Cibernetics

Practice Exercise Number 1.
Get a New Mental Picture of Yourself

You cannot merely imagine a new self-image; unless you feel that it is a based upon truth. Experience has shown that when a person does change his self-image, he has the feeling that for one reason or another, he “sees”, or realizes the truth about himself.

1. Your built-in success mechanism must have a goal or “target”. This goal, or target, must be conceived of as ‘already in existence-now’ either in actual or potential form. It operates by either 1) steering you to a goal already in existence or by 2) ‘discovering’ something already in existence.

2. The automatic mechanism is teleological, that is, operates, or must be oriented to “end results” goals.

3. Do not be afraid of making mistakes, or of temporary failures.

4. Skill learning of any kind is accomplished by trial and error.

5. You must learn to trust your creative mechanism to do its work and not “jam it” by becoming too concerned or too anxious is to whether it will work or not, or by attempting to force it by too much conscious effort.

“No matter what the situation is, you can prepare for it beforehand by means of imagining yourself and your prospect face to face while he is raising objections and creating problems and you handling them properly.

Instead of trying hard by conscious effort to do the things by iron-jawed will power, and all the while worrying and picturing to yourself all the things that are likely to go wrong, you simply relax the strain, strop trying to “do it” by strain and effort, picture to yourself the target you really want to hit, and “let” your creative success mechanism take over. Thus, mental-picturing the desired end result, literally forces you to use “positive thinking”.

As Dr. Leslie D Weatherhead has said, “If we have in our minds a picture of ourselves as fear-haunted and defeated nobodies, we must get rid of that picture it and once and hold up our heads.

If you have been fearful and anxious in certain situations – see yourself acting calmly and deliberately, acting with confidence and courage – and feeling expensive and confident because you are.

He also said the self-realization is gained by ” a simple belief in one’s own uniqueness as a human being, a sense of deep and wide awareness of all people and all things and a feeling of constructive influencing of others through one’s own personality.

How to use relaxation to dehypnotize yourself

These memories of past failures do no harm as long our conscious thought and attention is focused upon the positive goal to be accomplished. Therefore, it is best to let these sleeping dogs lie.

Lecky found that there were two powerful “levels” for changing beliefs and concepts. There are “standard” convictions which are strongly held by nearly everyone. These are (1) the feeling or belief that one is capable of doing his share, holding up his end of the log, exerting a certain amount of independence and (2) the belief that there is “something” inside you which should not be allowed to suffer indignities.

Consciously practice the habit of “taking no anxious thought for tomorrow” by giving all your attention to the moment.

Another similar mental device which I have found very helpful to my patients is telling them: “Your success mechanism can help you do any job,  perform any task, solve any problem. Think of yourself as ‘feeding’ jobs and problems to your success mechanism as a scientist ‘feeds’ a problem to an electronic brain”.

If you have been wrestling with a problem all day without making any apparent progress, try dismissing it from your mind, and put off making a decision until you’ve had a chance to “sleep on it”.

Habits on the other hand are merely reactions and responses which we have learned to perform automatically without having to think or decide.  They are performed by our creative mechanism.

Fully as per cent of our behavior, feeling, and response is habitual.

Tomorrow morning determine which show you put on first and how you tie your shoes. Now, consciously decide that for the next 21 days you are going to form a new habit b putting on the other show first and trying your laces in a different way. Now, each morning as you decide to put on your shoes in a certain manner, let this simple act serve as a reminder to change other habitual ways of thinking, acting and feeling throughout that one day.

1. I will be as cheerful as possible.

2. I will try to feel and act a little more friendly toward people.

3. I am going to be a little less critical and a little more tolerant of other people, their faults, failings and mistakes. I will place the best possible interpretation upon their actions.

4. Insofar as possible, i am going to act as if success were inevitable, an  I already am the sort of personality I want to be. I will practice ‘acting like’ and ‘feeling like’ this new personality.

5. I will not let my own opinion color facts in a pessimistic or a negative way.

6. I will practice smiling at least 3 times during the day.

7. Regardless of what happens, I will react as calmly and as intelligently as possible.

8. I will ignore completely and close my mind to all those pessimistic and negative “facts” which I can do nothing to change.

Develop a “nostalgia for the future” instead of for the past. The “forward look” and a “nostalgia for the future” can keep you youthful.

The success-type personality not only does not cheat and lie to other people, he learns to be honest with himself. What we call “sincerity” is itself based upon self-understanding and self-honesty. For no man can be sincere who lies to himself by “rationalizing” or telling himself “rational-lies”.

So must you admit your mistakes and errors but dont cry over them. Correct them and go forward. In dealing with other people try to see the situation from their point of view as well as your own.

You must daily have the courage to risk making mistakes, risk failure, risk being humiliated. A step in the wrong direction is better than staying “on the spot” all your life.

Successful personalities have some interest in and regard for other people. They have a respect for other’s problems and needs. They respect the dignity of human personality and deal with other people as if they were human beings, rather than pawns in their own game.

The person who feels that “people are not very important” cannot have very much deep-down self-respect and self-regard for he himself is “people” and with what judgement he considers others, he himself is unwittingly judged in his own mind.

It doesn’t matter who’s right, but what’s right.

Prescription

(1) Try to develop a genuine appreciation for people by realizing the truth abut them; they are children of God, unique personalities, creative beings

(2) Take the trouble to stop and think of the other person’s feelings, his view points, his desires and needs. Think more of what the other fellow wants, and how he must feel. A friend of mine kids his wife by telling her, wherever she asks him, “Do you love me?” -Yes, whenever I stop and think about it”. There is a lot of truth in this. We cannot feel anything about other people unless we ” stop and think ” about them. Act as if other people are important and treat them accordingly. In your treatment of people have regard for their feelings. We tend to feel about objects in accordance with the way we treat them.

The person with adequate self-esteem doesn’t feel hostile toward others, he isn’t out to prove anything, he can see facts more clearly, isn’t as demanding in his claims on other people.

Stop carrying around a mental picture of yourself as a defeated, worthless person, stop dramatizing yourself as an object of pity and injustice. Use the practice exercises in this book to build up an adequate self-image.

The biggest secret of self-esteem  is this: Begin to appreciate other people more; show respect for any human being merely because he is a child of God and “therefore” a ” a thing of value”.

Stop and think when you’re dealing with people. You’re dealing with a unique, individual creation of the creator of all. Practice treating other people as if they had some value- and surprisingly enough you own self-esteem will go up.

It doesn’t matter how many times you have failed in the past. What matters is the successful attempt, which should be remembered, reinforced and dwelt upon.

You may have made a mistake, but this does not mean that you are a mistake.

Accepts yourself as you are and start from there. Learn to emotionally tolerate imperfection in yourself.

I may not be perfect, I may have faults and weaknesses, I might have gotten off the track, I may have a long way to go- but I am something and I will make the most of that something.”

The failure-type personality does not direct his aggressiveness toward the accomplishment of a worthwhile goal. Instead t is used in such self-destructive channels as ulcers, high blood pressure, worry, excessive smoking, compulsive overwork, or it may be turned upon other persons in the form of irritability, rudeness, gossip, nagging, fault finding.

It doesn’t work.  You don’t solve one problem by creating another. If you feel like snapping at someone; stop and ask yourself- ” Is this merely my own frustration at work? what has frustrated me?”

The insecure person feels that he should be “good” -period. He should be “successful”  period. He should be “happy”, competent, poised-period.  These are all worthy goals. But they should be thought of, at least in their absolute sense, as goals to be achieved, as something to reach for, rather than as ” shoulds”.

It is insecure trying to stand on the top as a pinacle, “mentally get down off your high-horse and you will feel more secure”.

Loneliness is a way of self-protection. Lines of communication with other people -and especially any emotional ties – are cut down. it is a way to protect our idealized self against exposure, hurt, humiliation. The lonely personality is afraid of other people.

Develop some social skill that will add to the happiness of people: dancing, bridge, playing the piano, tennis, conversation. It is an old psychological axiom that constant exposure to the object of fear immunizes against the fear.

“The greatest mistake a man can make is to be afraid of making one”.

many people are indecisive because they fear loss of self-esteem if they are proved wrong. Use self-esteem for yourself, instead of against yourself, by convincing yourself of this truth. Big men and big personalities make mistakes and admit them. it is the little man who is afraid to admit he has been wrong.

Resentment is an attempt to make our own failure palatable, by explaining i in terms of unfair treatment, injustice.

Resentment is also a “way” of making us feel important. Many people get a perverse satisfaction from feeling “wronged”. The victim o injustice, the one who has been unfairly treated, is morally superior to those who causes the injustice.

Resentment is an emotional rehashing, or re-fighting of some event past. You cannot win, because you are attempting to do the impossible – change the past.

Resentment, even when based upon real injustices and wrongs is not the way to win. It soon becomes an emotional habit.

Remember that your resentment is not caused by other persons, events or circumstances. It is caused by your own emotional response-your own reaction.

If everyone else should be dedicated to making you happy, you will be resentful when it doesn’t work out that way. If you feel that other people “owe” you eternal gratitude, undying appreciation, or continual recognition of your superlative worth, you will feel resentment when these “debts” are not paid. If life owes you a living, you become resentful when it isn’t forthcoming.

Resentment is therefore inconsistent with creative goalstriving. In creative goal-striving you are the actor, not the passive recipient.  You set your goals. No one owes you anything you go out after your own goals. You become responsible for your own success, and happiness. Resentment doesn’t fit into this picture, and because it doesn’t it is a “failure mechanism”.

A person who has the capacity to enjoy still alive within him finds enjoyment in many ordinary and simple things in life. He also enjoys whatever success in a material way why he has achieved.

Emptiness is a symptom that you are not living creatively. You either have no goal that is important enough to you, or you are not using your talents and efforts in striving toward an important goal.

Real success never hurt anyone, Striving for goals which are important to you, not as status symbols, but because they are consistent with your own deep inner wants, is healthful.

Self Fulfilled persons have the following characteristics:

1. They see themselves as liked, wanted, acceptable and able individuals.

2. They have a high degree of acceptance of themselves as they are.

3. They have a feeling of oneness with others.

4. They have a rich store of information and knowledge.

There Rules for Imunizing yourself Against Emotional Hurts

(1) Be too big too feel threatened: When a person has adequate self-esteem little slights offer no threat at all- they are simply “passed over” and ignored.

(2) A self-reliant, responsible attitude makes you less vulnerable: But the creative, self-reliant person also feels a need to give love. His emphasis is a much or more on the giving as on the getting. He doesn’t expect love to be handed to him on a silver platter. Nor does he have a compulsive need that “everybody” must love him and approve of him. He has sufficient ego-security to tolerate the fact that a certain number of people will dislike him and disapprove.

Develop a more self-reliant attitude. Assume responsibility for your own life and emotional needs. Try giving affection, love, approval, acceptance, understanding, to other people, and you will find them coming back to you as a sort of reflex action.

(3) Relax away emotional Hurts

When we “feel hurt” or “feel offended”, the feeling is entirely a matter of our own response. In fact the feeling is our response.

It is our own responses that we have to be concerned about not other people’s we cam tighten up, become angry, anxious, or resentful and “feel hurt”. Or, we can make no response, remain relaxed and feel no hurt. Scientific experiments have shown that it is absolutely impossible of any kin while the muscles of the body are kept perfectly relaxed.

You alone are responsible for your responses and reactions. You do not have to respond at all. You can remain relaxed and free from injury.

True forgiveness comes only when we are able to see, and emotionally accept, that there is and was nothing for us to forgive. We should not have condemned or hated the other person in the first place.

To live creatively, we must be willing to be a little vulnerable. We must be willing to be hurt a little- if necessary, in creative living. A lot of people need a thicker and tougher emotional skin that they have. But they need only a though emotional hide or epidermis-nor a shell.

“Poor personality” and “inhibited personality” are one and the same. The person with a “poor personality” does not express the creative self within. He has restrained it, handcuffed it, locked it up ad thrown away the key. They word “inhibit” literally means to stop, prevent, prohibit, restrain.

The symptoms of inhibition are many and varied: shyness, timidity, self-consciousness, hostility, feelings of excessive guilt, insomnia, nervousness, irritability, inability to get along with others.

Inhibition and excessive negative feedback are one and the same. When we over-react to negative feedback of criticism, we are likely to conclude that not only is our present course slightly off-beam, or wrong, but that is wrong for us even to want to go forward.

If we are consciously overcritical of our speech, or if we are too careful in trying to avoid errors in advance, rather than reacting spontaneously, stuttering is likely to result.

Conscious Self-criticism makes you Do worse

When excessive negative feedback, or self-criticism was eliminated, inhibition disappeared and performance improved. When there was no time for worry, or too much carefulness in advance, expression immediately improved.

One ounce of good nervous tone in an examination, fling the book the day before, say to yourself, ‘I won´t waste another minute on this miserable thing, and I dont care an iota whether I succeed or not. Say this sincerely and feel it, and go out and play, or go to bed and sleep, and I am sure the results next day will encourage you to use the method permanently.

When you become too consciously concerned about “what others think”, when you become too careful to consciously try to please orther people; when you become too sensitive to the real or fancied disapproval of other people – then you have excessive negative feedback, inhibition and poor performance.

You become too careful to make a good impression, and in so doing choke off, restrain, inhibit your creative self and end up making a rather poor impression.

The way to make a good impression on other people is: Never consciously “try” to make a good impression on them. Never act, or fail to act purely for consciously contrived effect. Never “wonder” consciously what the other person is thinking of you, how he is judging you.

In this book, the knack of selling yourself, Mangan advises salesmen to use the “I’m going home to eat supper with my Ma and Pa! I’ve been through this a thousand times – nothing new can happen here, “attitude in all sorts of new and strange situations.

“This attitude of being immune to strangers or strange situations, this total disregard for all the unknown or unexpected has a name. It is called Poise, Poise is the deliberate shunting aside of all fears arising from new and uncontrollable circumstances.

You need to be more self-conscious

Then he stopped fighting and trying to conquer his “self-consciousness”, and instead concentrated or developing more self-consciousness feeling, acting, behaving, thinking as he did when he was alone, without any regard to how some other person might feel about of judge him. This total disregard for the opinion and judgement of other people did not result in his becoming callous, arrogant, or entirely insensitive to others. There is no danger of entirely insensitive to others. There is no danger of entirely eradicating negative feedback, no matter how hard you may try. But this effort in the opposite direction did tone down his overly sensitive feedback mechanism. He got along better with other people, and went on to make his living counseling people and making public speeches to large groups, ” without the slightest degree of self-consciousness”.

Many people, inhibited by the wrong kind of conscience, “hold back “, or ” take a back seat” in any kind of endeavor, even in church activities. They secretly feel it would not be “right” for them to “hold themselves out” as a leader, or “presume to be somebody”, or they are overly concerned with whether other people might think they were “showing off”.

We can become overly sensitive, and become too carefully concerned with whether we “have a right” to succeed in even a worthwhile endeavor.

Stage fright illustrates how universal is the suppression and inhibition of self-expression.

If you are among the millions who suffer unhappiness and failure because of inhibition- you need to deliberately practice dis-inhibition. You need to practice being less careful, less concerned, less conscientious. You need to practice speaking before you think instead of thinking before you speak. acting without thinking, instead of thinking or “considering carefully”before you act.

Practice Exercises:

1. Don’t wonder in advance what you “going to say”. Just open your mouth and say it. Improvise as you go along.

2. Don’t plan (take no thought for tomorrow) Don’t think before you act. Act- and correct your actions as you go along.

3. Stop criticizing yourself. The inhibited person indulges in self-critical analysis continually.

4,  Make a habit of speaking louder than usual. Inhibited people are notoriously soft spoken. Raise the volume of your voice. You don’t have to shout at people and use an angry tone-just consciously practice speaking louder than usual loud talk in itself is a powerful dis inhibitor.

5. Let people know when you like them. The inhibited personality is as afraid of expressing “good” feelings as bad ones.

“counting to ten” when you are tempted to become angry is based upon the same principle, and is very good advice- if you count slowly, and in fact actually delay the response, rather than merely holding in your angry shouting or desk pounding.

We must be sensitive to negative feedback data which advises us when we are off course, so that we can change direction and go forward. But at the same time, we must keep our own ship afloat and stable. Our ship must not be tossed and rocked and perhaps sunk by every passing wave, or even a serious storm.

Stop scaring yourself to death with your own mental pictures. Stop fighting straw men emotionally, respond only to what actually is, here and now and ignore the rest.

In order to perform well in a crisis we need to (i) learn certain skills under conditions where we will not be demotivated, we need to practice without pressure (2) we need to learn to react to crisis with an aggressive rather than a defensive attitude; to respond to the challenge in the situation, rather than to the menace; to keep put positive goal in mind. (3) we need to learn to evaluate so-called “crisis” situations in their true perspective; to not make mountains out of molehills, or react as if every small challenge were a matter of life or death.

The more intense the crisis situation under which you learn, the less you learn.

The most common form of shadow-boxing for public speakers is to deliver their speech to their own image on the mirror.

If we dwell upon failure, and continually picture failure to ourselves in such vivid detail that it becomes “real” to our nervous system, we will experience the feelings that go with failure.

On the other hand, if we keep our positive goal in mind, and picture it to ourselves so vividly as to make it “real”, and think of it in terms of an accomplished fact, we will also experience “whining feelings”. Self-confidence, courage, and faith that the outcome will be desirable.

And if there is one simple secret to the operation of your unconscious creative mechanism, it is this: call up, capture, evoke the feeling of success. When you feel successful and self-confident, you will act successfully when the feeling is strong, you can literally do no wrong.

Use gradualness. Begin to think about the desired end result as you do when you do worry about the future. When you worry you do not attempt to convince yourself that the outcome will be undesirable.

Faith and courage are developed in exactly the same way. Only your goals are different. If you are going to spend time in worry, why not worry constructively? Begin by outlining and defining to yourself the most desirable possible outcome.

Feelings cannot be directly controlled by will power. They cannot be voluntarily made to order, or tuned on and off like a faucet. If they cannot be commanded, however, they can be wooed. If they cannot be controlled by a direct act of will, they can be controlled indirectly.

A “bad” feeling is not dispelled by conscious effort or “will power”. It can be dispelled, however, by another feeling. If we cannot drive out a negative feeling by making a frontal assault upon it, we can accomplish the same result by substituting a positive feeling. Remember that feeling follows imagery. Feeling coincides with, and is appropriate to, what our nervous system accepts as “real” or the “truth about environment”.

Whenever we find ourselves experiences undesirable feeling-tones, we should not concentrate upon the undesirable feeling, even to the extent of driving it out. Instead, we should immediately concentrate upon positive imagery – upon filling the mind with wholesome, positive, desirable images, imagination and memories.

We habitually indulge in negative imagire out of the past, and in anticipating the future. This worry creates tension.  The worries the makes an “effort” to stop worrying and is caught in a vicious cycle. Tension provides a “worrying atmosphere”. The only cure for worry, he says, is to make a habit out of immediately substituting pleasant, wholesome, mental images, for unpleasant “worry images”. Each time the subject finds himself worrying, he is to use this as a “signal” to immediately fill the mind with pleasant mental pictures out of the past or in anticipating pleasant future experiences. In time  worry will defeat itself because it becomes a stimulus for practicing anti worrying.

“Experience has taught me to regard pessimism as major symptom of early fossilization. It usually arrives with the first minor symptom of physical decline”.

Six basic need that every human being has:

1, The need for love.

2. The need for security.

3. The need for creative expression.

4. The need for recognition.

5., The need for new experiences.

6. The need for self-esteem

 

 

Mean, Media and mode

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/meanmode.htm

The “mean” is the “average” you’re used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers. The “median” is the “middle” value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order, so you may have to rewrite your list first. The “mode” is the value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.

Independence (probability theory)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Independence_%28probability_theory%29

In probability theory, to say that two events are independent (alternatively called statistically independent or stochastically independent )[1] means that the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of the other. Similarly, two random variables are independent if the realization of one does not affect the probability distribution of the other.

The concept of independence extends to dealing with collections of more than two events or random variables.